proj_infrastrukturalne_kultura_streszczenie_ANG_front

Summary

The project "Influence of infrastructural projects in the field of culture conducted in Malopolska Region on the socio-economic environment” was undertaken by the Social Research Agency ​​ "Question Mark” at the request of the Marshal’s Office of Malopolska Region.​​ The main objective of the study was to support the voivodeship (regional) self-government in shaping public policies, with particular emphasis on activities related to the development and implementation of regional programs in the areas of ​​culture and cultural heritage.

The research included analysis of the impact made by infrastructural projects on 11 cultural institutions and their socio-economic environment.​​ The project focused on the following institutions organised by the Marshal’s Office and projects financed from European Union funds:

  • BWA SOKOL Gallery​​ in Nowy Sącz

  • Galician Town in Nowy Sącz

  • Family Home of John Paul II in Wadowice

  • Art Center​​ Mościce​​ in Tarnów, Mościce

  • Polish Aviation Museum in Cracow

  • Centre for the Documentation of the Art of Tadeusz Kantor – Cricoteka, Cracow

  • Renaissance castle in Szymbark

  • Oravian Ethnographic Park​​ in Zubrzyca Górna

  • The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art, Cracow

  • Krzysztof Penderecki European Centre for Music in Lusławice

  • Tatra Museum and​​ The Gallery of 20 th Century​​ Art​​ at Oksza Villa

It is worth emphasizing that the impact of the projects has been analysed not only in the context of institutions per se, but also the processes occurring in local society and economics.​​ The study, and the method of illustrating and using its results, are close to the model of collective case study.​​ The model approach is less popular as the analysis usually concerns a set of cases, rather than a specific case. The choice of cases is connected with the researchers' conviction that selecting these particular examples ​​ will aid understanding of a broader set of cases.​​ 

For this reason, it was decided to include in the report a summary of research results at the level of the entire community surveyed. By modifying the collective case study model, the emphasis was placed on specific institutions and the projects implemented in them; however, it is also worth highlighting the general profile of cultural institutions that emerges from the study and the number of ​​ contexts that should ​​ be considered when examining the impact of culture on social and economic processes. The results presented in this part of the report may also serve as a reference point for the interpretation of the results concerning individual institutions.

The analysis of the results is focused on identifying the most distinctive tendencies connected with the influence of investment on the socio-economic environment. Emphasis was placed on the ways in which general variables (age, education, income, cultural life attendance) influence the assessment of investments and the extent of its effects.​​ In order to illustrate this, several results of quantitative and qualitative research, desk research and WTP measurement were taken into consideration.​​ 

The gathered data and analysis are presented with reference to four main areas, in which the influence of investments was examined:

  • society,

  • economy,

  • culture,

  • the institution itself.

In the case of several projects it is also vital to relate them to other areas, such as revitalisation, the natural environment and the art market.​​ 

The influence of investments on the social environment

The results of both the quantitative and qualitative research demonstrate that the investments had, and still have, an impact on citizens’ quality of life. Among 1088 citizens of cities or districts, where the institution is running, 51,9% respondents rated changes made by investment in ​​ a positive way (in the opinion of 0,6% the changes are negative), although almost half of those examined do not see any changes (47,9%).​​ 

Table​​ 1.​​ Evaluation of impact made by the projects on citizens’ quality of life for particular institutions (data in %, N=1088)

 

 

EVALUATION OF PROJECTS’ IMPACT ON QUALITY OF LIFE

INSTITUTION

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician ​​ town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

Positive

45,9

48,6

35,1

62,6

67,7

41,4

44,6

66,3

37,7

77,7

43,9

51,9

without change

53,2

51,4

64,9

36,4

30

58,6

55,4

33,7

62,3

22,3

54,1

47,5

Negative

0,9

-

-

1

2,3

-

-

-

-

-

2

0,6

 

Youth​​ and, therefore, lower income are the features most highly connected with a positive assessment of the observed changes. Diversity in positive opinions is also visible amongst respondents of different education levels. Highly educated people (Master’s degree level) are more inclined to present positive opinions than the others. Moreover, women are slightly more likely to show positive feedback than men. Frequency of visiting certain institutions is also connected with the evaluation of their impact: 66,8% of respondents who visited institution several times rated the impact positively, whereas only 51,3% people who visited once rated it in positive way.​​ Only 28,5% respondents who have​​ only​​ heard about examined institution​​ but​​ have​​ never​​ been​​ there​​ show positive feedback.​​ 

To sum up, respondents who noticed the influence of projects on citizens’ quality of life, apart from several exceptions, rated the influence positively. It is worth underlining what made people present such opinions. Positive changes were usually noticed in the quality of public space, which is to be expected, taking into account the character of the investments.​​ 

Graph​​ 1.​​ The influence of investments in particular areas​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinion (N=1088)

Interviewees have also noticed that projects have triggered growth in tourism in their neighbourhoods (70,2%). Significantly, respondents have experienced positive changes in life satisfaction, pride and attachment to their place of living (emphasized by 60% respondents). Such results offer proof of the projects’​​ potential to build social capital. Its presence finds confirmation in citizens’​​ opinion about the impact of investments on​​ phenomena such as the​​ growth of local community engagement (72,6% positive answers) or an increase in their affiliation to their place of living (73,9%).​​ 

 

The results of the quantitative research present a positive picture of the impact made by investments in cultural infrastructure on local society life, although almost every other respondent does not see any connection between the projects and quality of life. The qualitative research results confirm these conclusions. As they demonstrate, there is a strong connection between affiliation with institutions or culture in general and the belief that cultural institutions and their activities affect citizens’​​ quality of life. People who are not directly connected with the examined institution or culture are rarely able to point out specific examples of their ​​ impact. Their opinions are often based on common knowledge and belief, rather than on their own experience.​​ 

 

In the case of every institution, a vast majority of respondents (91,6% on average) said that the institution's existence increases the prestige of​​ a​​ borough or district. However, the conviction presented by some participants in the qualitative research, that every investment made in a town or a village increases citizens’​​ quality of life, has no reflection in the quantitative research. Taking that fact into consideration, it is understandable that only less than half of the people living in the areas in which the institutions are located have noticed the impact of the projects on their social life.

Table​​ 2.​​ Impact of cultural institutions on prestige of certain borough/districts (N=1088)

Impact of cultural institutions on prestige of a borough/district

Institution

Average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

yes

94,1

93,9

95,1

92,1

87

97,1

86,8

85

90,5

98,6

87,6

91,6

no

5,9

6,1

4,9

7,9

13

2,9

13,2

15

9,5

1,4

12,4

8,4

 

Among those who believe that the existence of certain institution increases the prestige of their place of living, older respondents constitute the vast majority (94,7% of people aged 50-64 and 96,4% aged 65-74). When it comes to younger interviewees, 80% of people aged 15-24 share this opinion. There is also a visible tendency towards positive opinions among those of a higher education level.​​ 

There is no clear connection between assessment of institution impact on place of living prestige and level of income (the most convinced -​​ 100% positive feedback -,are respondents earning up to 5000 zł,​​ while, the most sceptical are those earning up to 2000 zł,​​ ¾​​ of whom answered in a positive way). In general, people who feel more connected with the institution see the relationship between it and the increasing prestige of​​ a​​ borough/district more clearly.

It is worth mentioning that cultural and educational activities offered by a specific institution have the potential to affect the local community. Each of the institutions included in the project declares that they undertake educational activity thanks to the investment. However, the challenges faced by institutions in this process differ as the local​​ community happens to be familiar with the content presented by some of them, whereas the provision offered by other institutions demands specific, basic knowledge about​​ the​​ presented topic.​​ 

Even if it is not directly mentioned in their programming documents, mission or vision, institutions are targeted at different types of visitors. They can be divided according to​​ the​​ criterion of origin (in the case of the Family Home of John Paul II ​​ visitors come from outside Wadowice and include non-Polish tourists, while in the case of Mościce Art Center visitors comprise the citizens of Tarnów in Mościce who​​ can participate​​ in the​​ regular activities of the Center). As shown below, citizens clearly diversify institutions by their target audience. On average, visitors to the examined projects are Polish tourists, which is also reflected in the quantitative data. According to the results, Mościce Art Center is the institution especially focused on the local community, while the Family Home of John Paul II is the place for tourists.​​ 

Table​​ 3.​​ Citizens​​ opinion about groups of recipients of particular investments (data in %, N=1088)

chosen group of recipients

Institution

Average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

citizens of a borough/district

9

71,3

38,4

13,1

17,1

20,4

40,7

18,4

27,5

29,6

11,5

27,0

citizens of Malopolska Region​​ 

4,5

26,6

14

6

50

35,2

40,7

36,7

28,6

48,2

36,5

29,7

polish tourists

86,5

2,1

44,2

52,4

28

38,9

14,8

43,9

44

22,2

47,9

38,6

international tourists

-

-

3,5

28,6

4,9

5,6

3,8

1

-

-

4,1

4,7

 

Another criterion is the level of competences and experience in the reception of specific cultural content. The institutions showcasing contemporary art have to face the challenge of "enticing”​​ their visitors, whereas the others simply have to present their offer in an attractive way (i.e. the Polish Aviation Museum in Cracow). The main strategy of both types of institutions is to perform educational activities focused on children and teenagers, as upcoming, aware "consumers”​​ of cultural goods. Some institutions, such as the Krzysztof Penderecki European Centre for Music in Lusławice, try their best to adjust their offer to more popular tastes, while others, like Cricoteka, face a dilemma regarding how to make the content more accessible to the broader public, without exposing themselves to accusations of missing their mission.​​ 

According to the gathered data, both​​ quantitative and qualitative, it is easy to observe that every institution undertakes conscious actions in a specific social context and that they are open to the needs of the local community. However, the qualitative data shows that where culture is not yet that crucial an aspect of peoples lives, the examined investments might be able to make a significant impact on their quality of life.​​ 

Even if certain institutions are primarily targeted towards visitors from outside the town/city, they still endeavour to provide activities for the local community, a point confirmed by the results of the surveys conducted with visitors. Almost 75% of them agreed that levels of citizen integration have increased due to the cultural institution. Respondents have also noticed the influence of institutions on other areas, such as the quality of public space (75%) or affiliation and pride in their place of living (50%). It is also worth mentioning that more than half of the respondents who visited institutions, did so because of particular events or the subject matter of exhibitions, which​​ indicates that what the institutions offer is tailored to the visitors' needs. Moreover, 1 out of 10 respondents admitted that they not only visit institutions at the time of particular events, but that they also simply spend their leisure time there, because of the attractive space they offer. To sum up, for more than 75% of visitors investments in the field of culture are connected with benefits to their social environment.​​ 

The influence of investments on economy

Opinions about the influence of investments on economy were gathered and examined with reference to the following indicators: the rise of new products and services, new business entities, the growth of investment attractiveness, tourism, citizens’​​ and tourists’​​ expenses, neutralising development barriers in certain places, and changes observed under the influence of investments in the examined companies.

The vast majority of respondents in the​​ qualitative part of the research agreed with the statement that investments in the field of culture have (and should have) an impact on economic development, even though it is difficult to find a direct connection between infrastructural projects in the field of culture and economic growth.​​ 

These opinions cohere with the answers of respondents living in towns/districts in the neighbourhood of institutions, given during the​​ quantitative part of the project. According to them, towns and districts have taken the biggest advantage of the investments in the matter of image. On average, half of the respondents notice changes in economy due to the existence of institutions.​​ 

Graph​​ 2.​​ The influence of institutions on particular areas of benefits for town/municipality​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinion (N=1088)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to exact indicators, with few exceptions (such as the café in Cricoteka,​​ BWA SOKOL Gallery, and Mościce Art Center), the realisation of investments had no direct impact on rising new business entities. During interviews, respondents identified other factors connected with market trends, rather than the activity of cultural institutions. It is​​ also quite difficult to find a relationship between investments and new workplaces, except those which were created in certain institutions (114 new workplaces).​​ 

The influence of investments on economic growth can "blur” ​​​​ a generally positive assessment of​​ the​​ economic situation expressed by respondents. In​​ the​​ past decade, interviewees more frequently highlighted the creation of new business entities (48,7% average) rather than their closure or relocation (11,7%). Referring to the direct impact​​ of the project on the economy in the community every other respondent claimed that it triggered subsequent investments in the neighbourhood.​​ 

Respondents during the qualitative part of the research were concordant when it came to assessing the positive impact of investments on the attractiveness of housing in their location. The citizens claim that public space is esthetic and well-organised (71,6%) ​​ and that citizens feel safe in their town/district (45,1%). The impact is especially clear in the case of neglected places, which received a new lease of life after infrastructural projects.​​ 

In​​ the​​ past decade, 62,3% of respondents have noticed changes in the real estate market in their surroundings, although the answers differed in the case of particular institutions. The biggest impact of investments was noticed in Cracow (the Małopolska Garden of​​ Art received​​ 86,7% positive opinions and Cricoteka received 83,3%). Minimal impact was observed around the Mościce Art Center (38,5%). When it came to ​​ changes in property prices, there was a huge variety of opinions (from 100% positive answers in the case of the​​ BWA SOKOL Gallery, to 22,9% in the case of Galician Town). It is worth noting that changes in prices are more often perceived as a result of general trends in particular towns (like Zakopane), rather than the activity of certain cultural institutions.​​ 

Table​​ 4.​​ Citizens​​ opinions about the influence of certain projects on investment attractiveness of municipality/district (data in %, N=1088)

aspect

institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

new investments

i agree

76,5

38,5

52,6

72

67,5

83,3

70,6

53,8

48

85,7

74,2

65,7

i disagree

23,5

61,5

47,4

28

32,5

16,7

29,4

46,2

52

14,3

25,8

34,3

property prices growth

i agree

62,1

23,8

7,1

69,2

44,4

87

100​​ 

22,9

33,3

81

64

45,0

i disagree

37,9

76,2

92,9

30,8

55,6

13

-

77,1

66,7

19

36

45,9

 

According to the analysis of changes in property prices for chosen institutions and towns (the Polish Aviation Museum in Cracow, Tatra Museum in Zakopane, Mościce Art Center in Tarnów and​​ BWA SOKOL Gallery​​ in Nowy Sącz), upon finishing investments, property prices in the examined locations increased. In Zakopane and Nowy Sącz, the growth of​​ the​​ average price per m2​​ is significant; in other cases it is difficult to directly connect the infrastructural projects with the change in property prices.​​ 

However, it is worth emphasizing that not every institution is located in an area that offers good potential for development for investors. Key factors are a well-arranged space in surroundings and location.

Respondents were concordant in their opinions regarding the positive impact of projects on tourism in their location. Their neighbourhood started to be perceived as more attractive thanks to the investments and thus more newcomers appeared. The interviewees positively rated such aspects as the development of interesting new activities by the institutions, the increase in quality of service, modifying buildings and training staff in order to meet the expectations of disabled patrons, and putting new media to good use. ​​ 

A significant growth in tourism is most commonly observed in the case of the Family Home of John Paul II in Wadowice (71,4% positive opinions), and least in the case of Mościce Art Center (where 52,5% interviewees do not see any changes in the amount of​​ tourists). The results of the qualitative research reflect the opinions mentioned above.​​ 

Table​​ 5.​​ The impact of particular projects on tourism in the neighbourhood​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinions (data in %, N=1088)

evaluation of tourism under the influence of investments​​ 

institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

significant progress and i rate it positively

59,6

34

74,4

71,4

58,4

87,5

72,4

64,9

73,3

79

58,2

65,4

significant progress and but i rate it negatively

8,8

3,8

10,3

3,6

3,9

3,1

-

5,2

6,7

3,2

3,6

4,8

stopped in progress and i rate it positively

-

5,7

-

3,6

2,6

-

3,4

1,3

4,4

-

-

2

stopped in progress and i rate it negatively

3,5

3,8

5,1

6

5,2

3,1

-

1,3

2,2

1,6

1,8

3,3

i don’t see any changes

28,1

52,8

10,3

15,5

29,9

6,3

24,1

27,3

13,3

16,2

36,4

24,6

 

The influence of investments on the economy was the main subject of interest in the research conducted in business environment (CATI).​​ 

CATI research included interviews with 167 entrepreneurs in total: 49,7% of them were from microenterprises, 12,6% small enterprises, 7,2% medium-sized business, and 30,5% self-employed respondents. ​​ More often than other research participants, entrepreneurs​​ observe the positive impact of investment in the field of culture on the local economy. They see the impact especially in tourism development (36,6%).​​ 

According to the functioning of their own companies, the entrepreneurs interviewed during the qualitative part of the research have not observed any changes triggered by investments, such as income growth or fiercer competition. The only exceptions are security companies, for whom the institutions are important customers.​​ Respondents most commonly admitted that they have not noticed any significant changes due to investments. Those who do observe changes claimed that their companies are better recognised (27,6%) and that income is higher (27,6%).​​ 

 

 

 

 

 

Graph​​ 3.​​ Changes due to investments observed by entrepreneurs (N=167)​​ 

To sum up, every fourth entrepreneur working in the place where the infrastructural project in the cultural institution took place perceived a positive impact on their own business from the investment. Respondents shared opinions that areas experiencing growth after the projects are gastronomy (16,5%), trade (4,9%), souvenirs (2,9%) and the food industry (2,9%). The vast majority does not observe any new entities in the creative and cultural sectors.​​ 

Graph​​ 4.​​ The impact of cultural institutions on certain areas of benefit in town/borough​​ ​​ entrepreneurs​​ opinion (N=167)

Subjective opinions of respondents were also completed with the analysis of changes in revenues from PIT and CIT taxes to budgets of particular municipalities. It is worth underlining, that it is difficult to point out direct and clear correlations between investments and changes in received proceeds. While looking for such connections it is vital to remember about macrosocial processes, such as migration waves (2008, 2013) or the macroeconomic environment, encompassing the global economic crisis (2009-2010).​​ 

As such, it is important to take a look at general annual estimates of state budget execution in the years 2004-2017. There are two main periods of growth that can be observed. The first one is connected with Poland's accession to the EU (2004) and lasts until 2008, while the second one started in 2011 and is still being observed.​​ 

 

Graph​​ 5.​​ Revenues from PIT and CIT taxes to state budget (in mld zł) in years 2004-2017

Moving on to the summary of annual revenues from PIT taxes to municipalities, in several cases it is possible to notice a tendency towards growth during the years of the realisation of the infrastructural projects (i.e.: Zakliczyn, Jabłonka, Gorlice, Wadowice). However, there was a general tendency of growth in revenues from PIT taxes in these municipalities, so it is hard to ascribe the direct impact of the projects to the growing income of budgets.​​ 

In the case of smaller municipalities, the influence of realised investments is slightly larger than it is in bigger cities such as Cracow, Nowy Sącz and Tarnów. The examined investments in these cities can be perceived as processes accompanying general trends.​​ 

CIT tax revenues to municipalities’​​ budgets fit in all-Poland tendencies. Only in the cases of Wadowice and Gorlice was a significant growth observed after the completion the infrastructural projects.​​ 

Summing up the analyzed data about revenues from PIT and CIT taxes to budgets, it is only possible in a few cases to discern a connection between the projects and theeconomy. Investments in the field of culture are important as processes accompanying and supporting changes; however, they are not yet determinants of these changes.

Estimating the impact of infrastructural projects in the field of culture on the socio-economic development of municipalities is a difficult task. Available data only suggest concomitance or following each phenomenon​​ by another, providing no clear information about s potential cause and effect relationship. The analysis of economy in particular municipalities proved that with few exceptions there is no way to connect infrastructural investments in the field of culture with changes in budgets, labour market or employment.​​ However, it should be underlinded​​ that quantitative research conducted amongst entrepreneurs showed that they actually observe changes in their environment due to the projects and rate those changes positively.​​ 

To sum up, interviewees rated the relationship between costs and achieved effects positively; however, they often admitted that they have insufficient knowledge to assess the financial efficiency of the projects. ​​ For this reason they were informed about the costs before answering the question. About 76% of respondents believe that the realised investments were necessary and that it is good that they have taken place. Unsurprisingly, this opinion is more often shared by visitors of the institutions, rather than citizens who do not attend them. Those who are more sceptical usually perceive the activities of the institution as poorly tailored to people’s needs. Respondents​​ encountered difficulties in evaluating the non-financial costs involved in the projects; however, they shared the opinion that the investments helped to neutralise barriers in local development, especially in cross-sectoral cooperation and innovative processes.​​ 

The influence of investments on culture

Indicators of the investments’​​ impact on culture were defined as follows: level of satisfaction from fulfilling cultural needs and creating new ones; cultural revival; the significance of the institution on the cultural map; creating creative cities; knowledge-based economy and cooperation of cultural institutions with​​ the​​ artistic environment.​​ 

In this area, there is a significant diversity in opinions between those examined in the qualitative and the quantitative parts of the research. Respondents from the qualitative part were strongly involved in cultural activities and the life of the examined institution. Those who have little contact with culture on a daily basis, were rather sceptical in their evaluation of the influence of a new institution on their life and environment. However, citizens usually noticed an intensification of cultural life in their neighbourhoods thanks to the described projects (86% average positive answers from all institutions).​​ 

 

Table​​ 6.​​ Impact of investments on cultural life intensification​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinions (data in %, N=1088)

Impact of investments on cultural life intensification

institution

Average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

i agree

91,2

89,7

96,8

75

80

95,5

85,7

75,5

89,5

92,3

74,3

86,0

i disagree

8,8

10,3

3,2

25

20

4,5

14,3

24,5

10,5

7,7

25,7

14,0

 

In order to gather more precise data, citizens were asked to what extent the examined institution satisfies their cultural needs. Opinions were diverse: 40,8% of respondents answered "to a modest extent”, while 39,3% said "to a large extent”.

 

 

Table​​ 7.​​ Level of satisfaction from cultural institutions​​ offer​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinions (data in %, N=1088)

to what extent institutions’ offer meets the needs of citizens

Institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

fully​​ 

15,6

9

-

8,3

2,4

9,7

7,8

3,2

7,1

12,7

7,3

7,6

to a large extent

35,4

49

33

37,8

50,6

30,6

33,3

36,2

30,6

64,8

30,5

39,3

to a modest extent

36,5

38

47,6

37,8

28,9

48,4

45,1

46,8

43,5

22,5

53,7

40,8

in no way

12,5

4

19,4

16,3

18,1

11,3

13,7

13,8

18,8

-

8,5

12,4

 

It is worth noting that levels of income and education are the key factors that influence to a large extent the level of satisfaction with the institution's provision.

 

Citizens who do not participate in​​ the​​ cultural activities of the examined institutions usually claim that they have not got enough free time (50,4%), do not know about what is on offer (28,5%) or perceive the offer as poorly tailored to their needs (14,2%). As such, it may be valuable for institutions to put more effort into addressing these last two reasons for citizens'​​ absence, in particular.

 

Respondents were also asked if the institution inspired them to take up more educational and cultural activity.​​ 
A third of them claimed they do not see any​​ influence​​ in this fegard.​​ 

 

 

 

Table​​ 8.​​ Impact of the institution on more frequent taking up of educational and cultural activities​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinion (data in %, N=757)

Impact of institution on more frequent taking up educational and cultural activities

institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

i agree

56,8

69

49,3

56,2

75,4

60,5

65

60,3

65,7

86,2

56,6

63,7

i disagree

43,2

31

50,7

43,8

24,6

39,5

35

39,7

34,3

13,8

43,4

36,3

 

Interviewees who visited institutions several times most commonly claim that their experience made them more willing to take up new activities connected with education and art. Additional factors supporting greater activity in these fields are higher education and income levels. Age has no significant impact on eagerness to take up such activities. Along with material from the qualitative analysis, this data proves​​ that participating in​​ the​​ cultural activities of particular institutions is connected with well-established habits of cultural participation in general. ​​ 

The issue of creating new cultural needs due to the existence of institutions was questioned during the qualitative part of the research and was evaluated ambivalently. This kind of effect was more commonly observed by representatives of institutions, NGO’s, self-government and organisations somehow connected with institutions rather than by non-participants in cultural life. Some of​​ ​​ the​​ institutions claim that they encounter fairly significant difficulties in attracting the local community with their activities. It is worth mentioning that institution representatives sometimes do not actually realise what the values of the local community are, and even if they do realise, they are unable to put this knowledge to good use.​​ 

​​ 

The gathered data, both quantitative and qualitative, prove that the examined institutions are perceived as important places on the cultural map of towns and cities. Respondents during the quantitative part of the research were concordant in their opinions about the increased access to culture for citizens thanks to the projects. With the exception of Cracow, in other cities and towns the examined institutions are the most modern of their kind. In the opinion of 93,5% interviewees these institutions play a key role in​​ the​​ cultural provision of municipalities. ​​ 

 

Table​​ 9.​​ Role of institutions in the cultural offer of municipalities/cities (data in %, N=1088)

Role of institutions in cultural offer of municipalities/cities

Institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

important

96,4

97

97,1

94

90,9

93,2

84,9

91,4

90,9

97,5

95,1

93,5

unimportant

3,6

3

2,9

6

9,1

6,8

15,1

8,6

9,1

2,5

4,9

6,5

According to the data, it is difficult to find a connection between the positive feedback of the respondents and factors such as age, education level or income. The role of institutions is more commonly rated positively by older respondents (more than 96% of positive answers came from interviewees aged 50-64 and 65-74, against 82% from people aged 20-24). Respondents with Master’s degrees more often perceive the role of institutions as important (95,6%). Referring to income, 100% of people with monthly revenue of up to 5000 zł​​ perceive​​ the​​ role of institutions to be important.

One of the elements proving that the role of the examined cultural institutions is significant is willingness to provide them with financial support. In order to examine this aspect, the Expressed Preference Approach was used, which relies on determining the value of goods based on respondents​​ answers. This method is more useful in the case of assessment of cultural goods in order to​​ identify​​ their general economic value. One of the most common tools used in the Preference Approach in non-market valuation of goods and services is the Contingent Valuation Method. Recipients or potential recipients of public goods are asked in the questionnaire to rate their willingness to pay or willingness to accept compensation for a loss or decreased quality of certain public goods. In our research, Willingness To Pay measurement was conducted on a sample of 600 citizens (150 citizens for each examined​​ institution), recruited according to the rules of the quota system amongst two groups of citizens: those participating in​​ the​​ cultural activity of the institution and those who do not non-participate ​​ The institutions included in this part of the research were the Małopolska Garden of​​ Art in​​ Cracow, Mościce Art Center in Tarnów, the Family Home of John Paul II in Wadowice, and Tatra Museum in Zakopane.​​ 

The analysis of data gathered from WTP measurement suggests that the higher the frequency of participation in cultural events, the bigger the declared amount of money offered to support the institution. Those who participate in a few dozen events per year declared the average amount of​​ 99,64​​ zł. Next, respondents participating in a dozen events a year declared​​ 50,02​​ ​​ on average, whereas interviewees who particpate in cultural events a few times a year declated​​ 36,33​​ ​​ and people who do​​ not participate in cultural life declared​​ 13,03​​ zł.​​ 

The percentage of respondents who were willing to pay a yearly donation was higher than those who declared themselves unwilling to support the institutions.​​ 

Table​​ 10.​​ Willingness to provide yearly support to the cultural institutions (data in %)

willingness to financial support the institutions

Instutution

Average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

FAMILY HOME OF JOHN PAUL II

THE MAŁOPOLSKA GARDEN OF ART

Yes

76,2

64,7

77,3

68,6

71,7

No

23,8

35,3

22,7

31,4

28,3

 

Table​​ 11.​​ Total and average amount from yearly financial support ​​ (in zł.)

 

 

 

 

Total amount

Institution

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

FAMILY HOME OF JOHN PAUL II

THE MAŁOPOLSKA GARDEN OF ART

556 636,05

3 170 861,46

1 153 688,94

26 371 159,02​​ 

Average amount

25,05

35,06

38,84

41,94

 

Taking into consideration the WTP data, thanks to citizens' support the institutions would be able to cover the whole cost of maintainance ​​ (in the case of The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art) or a large part of it (Tatra Museum, Family Home of John Paul II, Mościce Art Center)..

Despite the generally positive opinions about the importance of institutions in the cultural provision of municipalities, and the relatively high willingness to support them, according to the qualitative research, not many of the institutions managed to attract a regular public to periodically organised events. The exceptions are Mościce Art Center (with a regular program of cultural events and workshops) and the Krzysztof Penderecki European Centre for Music in Lusławice (which attracts attendees from the whole region). In the case of other entities, constant attendance is rather the effect of cooperation with non-governmental entities, which organise their events in the spaces of certain institutions (i.e.​​ The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art, Cracow). According to the quantitative research conducted among the visitors, the examined institutions actually have the potential to attract new attendees (2 out of 5 respondents took part in the event during our research for the first time). Every fourth interviewee visits the institution several times a year. It is also worth noting that almost every tenth person examined participates in the cultural life of the institution very often (1-3 times a month). Although participation in events of cultural institutions is not always connected with generating new needs or enhancing current ones, it is important to note the fact that every fourth respondent claims that he/she is more willing to keep in touch with art and culture. The potential to forge a constant audience is real​​ ​​ 91,9% of examined interviewees declared that they are going to visit the institution again.​​ 

When it comes to human and social capital growth under the influence of the examined investments, according to the gathered data only a few institutions have actually managed to revive the cultural life of the town/district or support bottom-up initiatives. Few respondents, including institutions’​​ representatives, claimed, that they have observed such effects from the projects. Even though some of them showed enthusiasm in this field, they were unable to point out precise examples of such initiatives. In the same way (that is, sceptically or without referring to examples), respondents rated the influence of investments on the quality of human and social capital and getting close to the model of smart cities and the knowledge-based economy.​​ 

For the vast majority of those examined even after becoming familiar with definition of "smart cities”​​ and knowledge-based economy, these phenomena were rather connected with aspects non-directly related to definitions, such as the modern equipment of institutions, bus/tram stops, etc. The gathered data suggests, that respondents ​​ "want”​​ to see these sorts of changes but don't actually observe them.​​ 

The influence of investments on the cultural institution

A large part of the qualitative and quantitative analysis was devoted to the influence of investments on cultural institutions per se. When it comes to the impact of the projects on examined institutions, participants of the interviews were extremely enthusiastic (with the exception of the Family Home of John Paul II in Wadowice, which provoked controversies around the "revolutionary”​​ change of the old Museum). It was emphasized that the changes made thanks to the projects were successful because of the better possibility of gathering and presenting resources and organising a variety of cultural events. The infrastructural aspect of the institutions was well appreciated.​​ 

Those citizens who actually had the opportunity to participate in​​ the​​ cultural activity of the institutions showed hugely positive feedback about the location of the institutions, the architecture and arrangement of the interior, the service and also the cleanliness. Slightly less positive opinions regarding the commercial facilities were due to a lack of such facilities in certain institutions. Respondents claimed that, in their opinion, this is the only disadvantage of some institutions (i.e. Mościce Art Center,​​ the Renaissance castle in Szymbark, and Krzysztof Penderecki European Centre for Music in Lusławice).​​ 

 

 

 

Graph​​ 6.​​ Evaluation of particular attributes of cultural institutions​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinions (N=757)

Moreover, citizens perceive the examined institutions as definitely accessible to disabled people, includung the hearing- and sight-impaired, and also representatives of different age groups: seniors and children (there were 91,5% positive opinions about the adjustment of institutions to the needs of recipients with reduced mobility, 87,9% in relation to the mentally disabled, and 82,8% and 79,1 % in relation to the hearing- and sight-impaired, respectively). When it comes to the adjustment of institutions to the needs of visitors of different ages, 95% of interviewees claim that the institutions are open to the needs of seniors and 94,9% perceive them as open for children. The results of the research clearly prove that examined cultural institutions are generally places open to the needs of every visitor.​​ 

The issue of changes which can be observed in cultural institutions over the years after finishing the projects was addressed in both the quantitative and qualitative parts of the research. As noted above, respondents do notice and appreciate the infrastructural aspect in particular, as the direct and the most visible effect of the investments. In the framework of the quantitative part of the research, interviewees were asked to focus on reflections ​​ over "softer”​​ changes in the functioning of the institutions. The vast majority of those examined (87,4% on average) say that they have observed changes in particular institutions over the years.

Table​​ 12.​​ Visibility of changes in the opinion of visitors (N=740)

changes in cultural institution over the years

institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

i notice

90,7

91,3

96,2

88,2

-

78,9

85,2

84,4

90,9

-

80,4

87,4

i do not notice

9,3

8,7

3,8

11,8

-

21,1

14,8

15,6

9,1

-

19,6

12,6

* the institution was founded in the framework of the infrastructural project

 

Graph​​ 7.​​ Evaluation of changes in institutions​​ ​​ recipients​​ opinion (N=422)

Importantly, in the opinion of the majority of visitors (77,9%), these changes were necessary, otherwise the institutions would have fallen behind the others; in the opinion of 15,9% of interviewees, they allowed institutions to outclass their competition, while 3,6% claim that these changes were unnecessary. Only 2,5% of respondents stated that these changes had no significant impact on the examined institutions. Respondents’​​ opinions clearly reflect the legitimacy of performed investments due to their social usefulness and the professionalism of the institution per se.

 

This social usefulness and professionalism of functioning are based mostly on the appropriate use of space and infrastructure. The vast majority of citizens (91,5%) who participate in the cultural life of the institution positively rated the arrangement of their infrastructure (93,1% in the case of visitors). This is significant because of the connection between better infrastructural opportunities and better frequency and level of cooperation with other entities, especially non-governmental ones, which often prefer modern spaces.​​ 

 

As previously mentioned, an insufficient amount of promotion of the institution can be a factor that decreases participation levels. It is extremely important to see whether the investments were effectively or poorly promoted, as this represented a great opportunity to attract new visitors. On average, 70,2% of respondents perceive the promotion of investments as sufficient; however, particular institutions differ significantly in this aspect.​​ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table​​ 13.​​ Evaluation of investments​​ promotion​​ ​​ opinion of citizens (data in %, N=1088)

promotion of investments

Institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

relevant

81,9

71,7

63,9

83,2

78,3

62,3

52,8

71,9

65,6

74,4

66,7

70,2

irrelevant

18,1

28,3

36,1

16,8

21,7

37,7

47,2

28,1

34,4

25,6

33,3

29,8

 

 

The aspect of efficient image-building and quality of communication with visitors (actual and potential) are directly connected with the promotion of the investment. This aspect was addressed in both the qualitative and the quantitative parts of the research. The most common channel of communication​​ is​​ family and friends (47%). Much less frequently respondents identified ​​ social media (16,2%), press/leaflets/posters (16,1%) and websites (11,8%) as an influence. As such, the gathered data suggests that, despite​​ the​​ pervasiveness of social media and the internet, the most effective form of promotion still remains so-called "word-of-mouth" marketing.​​ 

 

However,, despite relatively seldom-used recommendations other than family/friends, the examined respondents are aware of other channels of communication, such as internet services (46,7%), social media (46,5%), traditional media: press (31,2%), radio (19,8%), television (15,5%) and outdoor advertisement (12,4%).​​ 

 

The answers to questions connected with channels of communication revealed the leading role of the internet. Meanwhile, analysis of qualitative data revealed criticisms concerning​​ legibility​​ and lack of webpage updates. In a few cases, the online presence of the institutions was criticised. It is worth taking into consideration the aspect of further informational and promotional activities of institutions. Although the modernisation of objects involves​​ significant financial effort, refreshing the image of websites seems to be a much less expensive, albeit time-consuming, task.

 

When realising the research, it was acknowledged that infrastructural projects not only made an impact on how the institutions are seen outside, but also on their internal mechanisms. Based on data from the qualitative part of the research,​​ investments alone seem to be something derivate in view of organisational culture of institutions.​​ Investments usually made a positive impact on working conditions, although because of the ripple effect in acquiring resources, employees are more overwhelmed by the duties connected with the realisation of numerous projects. The modernisation of institutions was also a catalyst for raising staff competences.​​ 

 

In conclusion, it is worth emphasizing that the activity area of institutions, where the projects were conducted, was the actual area of the biggest impact of investments. Importantly, in contrast to the influence on society and local economy, respondents were more concordant in the view of its positive impact. However, the examined institutions have to rise to the challenge of further use and multiplying ​​ the potential provided by the realised projects, especially since it will involve more and more effort. It is a matter of the diversification of financing sources and, on the other side, a more active approach to fulfilling the needs of the local community in order to demonstrate the institution's significance, and to gain new supporters and partners for activities.​​ 

 

 

The influence of investments on revitalisation processes​​ 

This area of impact was addressed during the qualitative part of the research. Almost every project is perceived in the context of revitalisation in both the infrastructural and social aspect. According to project documentation, most of​​ the​​ investments achieved their goals in terms of space revitalisation, but unfortunately no data can clearly show the real scale of social revitalisation. The reason for such a state of affairs may be that in certain locations no social problems were diagnosed. On the other hand, projects such as the new building of Cricoteka are more connected with the gentrification process, rather than supporting the neutralization of negative social phenomena.​​ 

The influence of investments on the natural environment​​ 

Respondents during the qualitative part of the research claimed that they do not observe any impact of investments on the natural environment, or that it was positive. Questions connected with this area of influence highlighted some specific examples of actions, such as cutting down a tree because of a project. Due to lack of knowledge, it was quite difficult for respondents to answer whether the institution follows the rules of recycling/upcycling and use energy-efficient technologies, or not.

When it comes to general changes in the natural environment observed by citizens of municipalities/districts, answers are divided almost evenly between those who notice positive changes, those who are more sceptical, and the rest, who do not perceive any.​​ 

Table​​ 14.​​ Changes in the natural environment over the last decade​​ ​​ citizens​​ opinion (data in %, N=1345)

changes in natural environment

institution

average

TATRA MUSEUM

MOŚCICE ART CENTER

Oravian etnographic park

Family home of johm paul II

european centre for music

CRICOTEKA

BWA Sokół

galician town

castle in szymbark

The Małopolska Garden of​​ Art

polish aviation museum

for the better

16,5

42,1

42,7

32

48,6

21,4

29,1

26,5

28,6

50,4

33,3

33,7

for the worse

26,5

19,9

19,7

26,4

16,8

54,7

44,4

38,1

17,9

29,8

38,6

30,3

i do not see any changes

57

38

37,6

41,6

34,6

23,9

26,5

35,4

53,6

19,8

28,1

36,0

 

The influence of investments on the art market ​​ 

There was no influence on the art market before or after the investment in most of the institutions: no pieces of art were produced, and the art market was not stimulated by them. Most institutions have permanent exhibitions, and concentrate on acquiring the collections and taking care of them.​​ 

All of the institutions undertake collaborations with artists, curators and animators. Some of the institutions promote local artists by presenting their pieces in exhibitions. Only a few have residential programs for artists.

 

 

Summary

To sum up, all of the investments attain their goals and the investments are worth their prices. The results of the projects are long-term and enduring. The representatives of the institutions claim that thanks to the investments they can unleash​​ the full power of the institutions. ​​ Some of the effects will be observable in the future. The improvements would be hard to bring about without community support. The infrastructure capabilities are harnessed in the right way (however, in some institutions​​ do no not offer food and dining options​​ which recipients found to be a disadvantage). The new buildings are perceived as examples of "good architecture”.​​