Foreign trade in Poland and Małopolska Region in 2018
The value of goods and services exported from Małopolska Region in 2018 have exceeded 10,0 mld euro (10.11 mld zł) barrier for the first time, which gives it 6th place within regions in the country.
Foreign trade and export
Małopolska Region has recorded an increase in the value of exported goods and services by 5.7 % in comparison to 2017. The value of goods and services sent from Poland amounted to 219.18 billion EUR and increased by over 16.5 billion on a national scale. Leaders – Mazowieckie and Śląskie Voivodships – generate close to ¼ of domestic exports, and the value of each exceeds 27 billion EUR. Wielkopolska is another region where exports exceed 20 billion EUR. The next in the ranking – Dolnośląskie Voivodship – recorded the largest increase compared to 2017 – 1.4 billion EUR. A slightly higher export value than in Małopolska was recorded by the Pomorskie – 11.66 billion EUR.
Both Poland and Małopolska Region are definitely based on exports to european countries, especially to European Union (around 90%). Germany is the most important export partner for Małopolska Region, which is also reflected at the national level. The value of domestic exports to Germany exceeded 60 billion EUR, and the participation in domestic exports increased from 27.3% in 2017 to already 28.0% in 2018. For Małopolska region, it was 24.3% (2.5 billion EUR) and the increase from 23.5%, to 24.3% compare to 2017.
The value of exports above 500 million EUR and a share of 5% were also recorded by other directions of Małopolska exports: the Czech Republic (787 million EUR), France (768 million EUR), Great Britain (551 million EUR) and Slovakia (523 million EUR). The largest increase (similar to the national scale) was recorded in a trade exchange with Romania (13.5%). A decrease in value of exports was recorded for several countries, including the largest in the shipment of goods to Lithuania (-13.9%), as well as in exports to Austria, Brazil, Belarus and Luxembourg (all above 10 million EUR).
In 2018, 3,921 export companies operated in Małopolska (4th place in the ranking). Since 2017, the number of transport companies has increased by 110. The largest number of exporting companies is in the Mazowieckie Voivodship, where the number is gradually approaching the border of 10,000. In the whole country, this number increased from 44,494 to 44,820.
Import in Małopolska region
In total, the value of imports to Poland in 2018 reached 220.98 billion EUR and it was the first period when the value of imports exceeded 200 billion EUR. All Polish voivodships in 2018 recorded an increase in the value of imports. During this period, Małopolska imported goods with a total value of 10.82 billion EUR from the outside and for the first time it crossed the barrier of 10 billion EUR. In the ranking of regions, Małopolska Region took 6th place again.
The Mazowieckie Voivodship remains the unchallenged leader in this ranking. The value of imports of this region amounted to 60.18 billion EUR, which exceeds the total value of three other regions in this ranking – Wielkopolska (22.23 billion EUR), Śląsk (20.37 billion EUR) and Dolny Śląsk (16.01 billion EUR). Each of the regions also recorded an increase in value per capita and exceeds 1000 EUR.
Małopolska Region recorded an increase from 2.9 thousand EUR up to 3,200. Importers in Poland constituted a group of 54 424 entities, however Małopolska – 4690 entities, which makes the region one of the leaders (4th place). The value of imports per one enterprise in Małopolska Region in 2018 amounted to 2.3 million EUR.
The leading countries that import goods to Poland include:
- Germany (the largest increase in the value of imports every year, on the Polish scale in 2018, over EUR 5 billion),
- Russia (an increase of over 3.7 billion since 2017)
- China (an increase of over 1.7 billion since 2017)
The Netherlands, Italy and the Czech Republic are next. The Asian countries are also dominated by the Republic of Korea and Vietnam, the value of imports from each of these countries increased by more than 500 million EUR year on year. Interestingly, the largest percentage increase was recorded in the import of goods from Belarus.
Germany is the largest importer to Małopolska Region, and the value of imported goods increased by over 200 million EUR and amounted to 3 billion EUR (nearly 28% of the total value of imports). The next countries generating an import value above 700 million EUR are: China, Italy and the Netherlands. Slovakia is a prominent importer, certainly due to the immediate vicinity of Małopolska region (629 million EUR).
For the first time, since 2014, both Poland and Małopolska region recorded a negative trade balance. The value of goods imported to Poland is higher by 1.8 billion EUR, and to Małopolska by 0.72 billion EUR, which means to double the negative balance from 2017.
Commodity products of Małopolska
The most important goods exported from Małopolska Region are road tractors for pulling semi-trailers, and their value exceeded 437 million EUR. Above 200 million EUR also reached other automotive and motor-related categories: Electrical, lighting or visual signaling equipment of a kind used in motor vehicles, Radiators for motor vehicles, Vehicles other than for the transport of radioactive substances, and slightly below 200 million EUR – traffic jams, lids, caps.
The two most important categories of imported goods also belong to the automotive industry. The highest import value was achieved in the category: Engines (according to item 840820, without item 84082010; for vehicles of Chapter 87, except those for wheeled agricultural and forestry tractors; with power> 200 kW) and Bodies (including cabs), motor vehicles. In addition to the abovementioned, the category of liquefied hydrocarbons without propane, butane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, butadiene exceeded the value of EUR 200 million (increase from 180.2 million in 2017).