The report is based on a research questionnaire, including 31 units, showing the process of digitisation in Małopolska’s museums.
Among them we had: 26 entities, are organized by local governments, 3 private entities and 2 managed by non-governmental organizations. In addition, among these institutions there were 3 district museums – from Kraków, Tarnów and Nowy Sącz. The study was conducted to identify the current state of digitization of cultural resources in Małopolska’s museums. A goal was also to gather information about the manner and intensity of using digital culture resources by the inhabitants of Małopolska region.
Cultural heritage for future generations
Digitization is the process of transforming information recorded in an analog form into a digital form. The process of digitizing cultural heritage contributes both to increasing the availability of cultural products, and allows individual institutions to inventory and archive resources, which in turn gives them a chance to preserve the heritage for future generations. Digitization of cultural heritage is a multidimensional venture and it is necessary to take strategic planning activities, ensure adequate technical infrastructure, qualified staff, and thus also allocate the necessary financial resources.
The most important undertaking in the field of digitization at the European level was creating the EU i2010 initiative for digital libraries, and then the launch of Europeana – a digital platform with digitized resources of European cultural heritage. Europeana currently provides access to over 54 million items (including image, text, sound, video and 3D materials) from the collections of over 3,700 libraries, archives, museums, galleries and audiovisual collections from all over Europe.
In Poland, the entity responsible for implementing EU recommendations in the field of digitization is the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, which established an auxiliary Digitization Team.
The first high-budget project – aimed at creating a stable financing system for digitization projects – was the “Kultura +” Multiannual Government Program for 2011–2015. The main goal and effect of the program was financing the activities of the designated 5 Competence Centers, with the main task to coordinate activities related to digitization in a cultural sector.
How and why do institutions digitize collections?
In 2007-2020, Małopolska cultural institutions carried out about 30 projects, co-financed from national and regional operational programs aimed at digital consolidation and sharing of cultural heritage resources. Museums implement the process of digitizing collections in various forms. The dominant model is relying on own forces, and only a part of the institutions take into cooperation with external entities.
Most of the surveyed units that digitize their collections did not create their own program for digitizing collections. The overwhelming group uses in this respect standards developed by external institutions – most often the Ministry or National Institute of Museology and Protection of Museum’s Collections, which indicates the important role of these units in the preparation of good practices for the discussed issue. However, this approach leads to a lack of coordinated actions in the field of digitization of cultural goods. It generates difficulties for digital libraries in providing digitized exhibits operating in a specific files formats.
As the results of the study indicate, the main goal of digitization is to preserve the mapping of exhibits for future generations and to use digital copies for internal use of the institution. An important goal is also been to increase access to collections by publishing digital reproductions on websites.
Chart 1. The declared goal of digitizing the resources of cultural heritage by Małopolska cultural institutions
Source: own study
Who and why uses digitized collections?
Most users declaring to use the so-called contemporary works of culture in the form of e-books, films and programs can be found among the youngest group of respondents – 72.8%. Interest in this form of resources decreases with age. The situation is similar in the case of library resources – the inhabitants of Małopolska in age of 18-24 uses them most often – 52.7%. The situation is the opposite for seniors who use museum resources mostly – 45.1% of declarations.
Chart 2. Use of selected forms of digital heritage resources by Małopolska versus age (%)
Source: Own study based on the results of the study
Residents of Małopolska Region indicated that the so-called contemporary works (e.g. e-books, films, television programs) available via the Internet are the most popular. Over 60% of respondents declared using these resources. The second position with a result of 38.6% came from library resources (e.g. books, antique prints, manuscripts, maps, notes). Importantly, the inhabitants of Małopolska Region relatively willingly use museum resources – 32.5% of declarations.
Most often, inhabitants of Małopolska Region use digital cultural resources for scientific and educational purposes (almost ⅓ indications). It is also a way of entertainment and form of spending free time for over a quarter of respondents, and 13.6% of respondents also indicated the aspect of personal development and the need to explore information (10.3%).
We present the two-part report “Income tax from employees in the Małopolska Region in 2019”.
The report is based on the data originating in 1 636.3 thousand PIT-11 documents made available by the chamber of the fiscal administration in Kraków. The analysis contains information about taxpayers who obtained income from service relationship, employment relationship, cooperative employment relationship in 2018. Part one covers general taxpayer issues, including information on the structure of the economy based on taxpayers’ collections, their numbers, headquarters, mobility issues, as well as analysis of activities. The second part of the report is the analysis of information on taxpayers – individuals residing in Małopolska Region, parted by „powiaty” (administration’s units in the structure of region).
Less tax information
The year 2019 brought a halt to the rapid increase in the number of PIT-11 information issued, and even a slight decrease compared to the previous year. They are responsible for their decline, among others progressive decline in the working age population in Małopolska for several years, a growing share of non-tax resident foreigners, trade restrictions, a reduction in the widespread employment of students over the weekend in previous years, stabilization of the economy, also resulting in reduced staff turnover, and thus fewer tax information issued.
Only in three „powiaty” i.e. in Limanowski, Miechów and Wieliczka, the number of PIT-11 tax information issued increased in 2019 compared to the previous year. The deepest decline was recorded in the city of Nowy Sącz as well as Oświęcim and Olkusz. In communal sections, an increase in the number of issued PIT-11 documents was noted in 59 cases. The leading in this case is Igołomia-Wawrzeńczyce, in which a 15.8% increase was recorded. Chart 1. Number of information on earned income transferred to taxpayers residing in Małopolska Region in 2013-2019.
Chart 1. Number of information on earned income transferred to taxpayers residing in Małopolska in 2013-2019
Małopolska is a region based on services
This is clearly seen in the set of income tax payers. The most numerous group (36.7% of taxpayers from Małopolska) are taxpayers employed in the so-called “Other services”, including education, health care, social assistance, administration, education, etc. The second largest group (30.5% of Małopolska taxpayers) are services related to trade, transport, warehouse management, gastronomy, accommodation, information and communication. Industry is the third, not only as manufacturing activity, but also as mining, energy production and distribution – 20.5% of taxpayers. Next are: construction (8.2% of tax information issued), financial and insurance activities together with real estate market services – 3.6%, agriculture and related services – 0.6%.
Locally, the economic structure corresponds to the workplaces located in this area. Thus, for example, in the Brzeg, Dąbrowa, Miechów and Proszowice „powiaty”, enterprises included in the section ‘Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing’ dominate (the percentage of PIT-11 issued from companies was almost the same and amounted to 0.9%). Industry is the vast domain of the Oświęcim – 37.2% of tax information for taxpayers issued by industrial enterprises (including mines, power plants, waterworks, etc.). The next places are „powiaty” of Western Małopolska: Wadowicki – 33.9% and Olkusz – 33.3%.
The main specialization of Brzesko (16.8%), Limanowa (16.3%) and Nowy Sącz (14.7%) is architecture. In this case the largest quantitative decline in PIT-11 information was recorded. The “trade, repair, transport, storage, accommodation, gastronomy, information and communication” group is characteristic for the Tatrzański „powiat” – 42.7% and Miechowski „powiat” – 35.3%. Finance and insurance along with real estate services is the domain of Kraków – 5.3%, and “other services” are concentrated in cities with „powiat” rights, with Kraków’s leading role – 44.0%.
Chart 2. Number of information on earned income transferred to taxpayers residing in Małopolska by groups of „PKD” sections
Work where you live, but be mobile
The labor market in Małopolska is shaped by both local companies having their headquarters here as well as their representative offices, branches, factories and shops, but also by employing commuting at their premises. This usually applies to border areas in neighboring regions, guaranteeing an acceptable travel time. In 2018, about 2/3 of taxpayers residing in Małopolska provided work in the place of residence. This percentage is quite stable and slightly varies every year. In powiaty, the value is much more diverse, ranging from 42.6% in the Wadowice poviat, to 91.3% in the case of Kraków.
The gradually increasing share of companies located in Małopolska in the issued PIT-11 tax information for residents of the region is noticeable. In 2015-2019, this share increased by over 2 percentage points, from 78.1% to 80.2%. In different regions, it looks different, for example, in Oświęcim powiat payers from Małopolska issued 55.05% of all PIT-11 tax information, in Chrzanów powiat with a value of 66.1%, while in Myślenice powiat the value was 89.1%, and in Bochnia – 88.5%.
Lower values of the indicator in powiaty of the western part of the Małopolska are dictated by the strong economic impact of Śląsk Region (Silesia), as well as the location in Małopolska of branches or plants of companies from the Śląsk (e.g. mines) generating a large labor market. On the other hand, powiaty on the eastern side of the region have the exact opposite problem – the lack of adequate supply of jobs forces them to migrate – either to the capital of powiat or even further.
The percentage share in the labor market of payers from other regions recorded a more than 1% share:
- Mazowsze – 8.5%
- Śląsk – 5.1%
- Wielkopolska – 1.5%
- Dolny Śląsk – 1.1%
- Podkarpacie – 1.1%
With the exception of Wielkopolska, the share of payers from these regions in the number of tax information issued to taxpayers from Małopolska in the period 2015-2019 decreased.
Map 1. Percentage of PIT-11 tax information issued by payers based in Małopolska Region
A source of charts and a map: own study.
Read the reports in Polish language:
Health protection, ecological awareness, social economy, culture digitalization, social media – these issues were found in the 9th edition of the research opinions of the residents of Malopolska Region 2019.
The residents of Małopolska Region voiced their views on factors affecting health, performing check-up and preventive examinations, assessing a degree of air pollution in the place of residence, sharing knowledge about ecology and taking action to protect the environment. The study also included the subject of social economy and knowledge of the offer of social enterprises, needs and preferences regarding the use of digitized resources of cultural heritage were examined, and how małopolska residents use social media.
One of the most important issues raised in the study was health protection and preventive services. Health topics, especially prevention, have occupied a lot of space for weeks in social life, as well as in the media, especially in the face of the current covid-19 epidemic. Although the study was carried out a few months before the pandemic, it contains many interesting opinions about the general health condition of Małopolska residents
Health – O.K! Research – not necessarily
According to 64% of Małopolska respondents, the factor that determines the health condition of the population to the greatest extent is lifestyle (e.g. physical activity, diet, rest). According to the respondents, access to healthcare is the least important (1/4 of the declaration). So, do residents of Małopolska attach importance to prevention and check-ups before they get sick? It turns out that the inhabitants of the region usually carry out check-ups only if disturbing symptoms occure (55.7% of opinions) and at the request of a doctor (40.1%). The most systematic in carrying out control tests are the inhabitants of Krakow, because over 40.0% responded “I do it systematically”. The fewest declarations were made by respondents from the Sądecki subregion – 28.9%, as well as young people aged 18-24.
Almost 85.0% of respondents declare that in the last two years they performed basic tests (including blood or urine tests, ultrasound examination). Over 3/4 of them underwent a blood pressure test, and what is significant, hypertension is indicated as one of the most common complaints among the inhabitants of Małopolska (1/4 of respondents). As for women-dedicated tests, over 68.0% of female in Małopolska admit that they have had cytological tests in the last two years, 65.4% have had a gynecological ultrasound scan, but only 44.1% have indicated that they were doing a breast ultrasound or mammography at that time . The situation is slightly worse among male because in the last two years prostate tests were performed by less than 1/4 of male respondents.
Picture 1. Factors which determining the most a health condition of the population in Małopolska Region
There’s a deficit of clean air
According to independent data, polluted air increases the risk of many diseases, including respiratory and circulatory systems. Małopolska’s residents also pay attention to the fact that the external environment (e.g. air quality, working conditions) can significantly affect health. Meanwhile, despite many efforts directed at environmentally friendly solutions, Małopolska Region is still struggling with the problem of polluted air. As many as 60.0% of the Małopolska respondents assess the degree of air pollution in their place of residence as “very high” or “high”. The inhabitants of Krakow pay special attention to this problem, as up to half of them think that their place of residence has “very high” air pollution. The inhabitants of the Nowy Targ subregion have a different opinion, only 4.4% think that the air condition is bad.
Chart 1. Assessment of the level of air pollution at the place of residence in Małopolska Region
Active on the Internet
Małopolska Region is one of the richest and most culturally diverse regions in Europe, and Krakow itself boasts several million exhibits in its museums. The preservation of all kinds of cultural goods in digital format has become possible thanks to the digitization process. The inhabitants of Małopolska know that there is an electronic, digitized form of culture, and the inhabitants of Krakow demonstrate the greatest knowledge in this area – 77.4%. The most popular are the so-called contemporary works (e.g. e-books, films, TV programs) available via the Internet – 60.6%. The second position is taken by library resources (e.g. books, old prints, manuscripts, maps, notes) – 38.6%.
As regards the use of social media, as many as 86.4% of respondents declared that they had an account on at least one website. Facebook is the most popular social website among Małopolska inhabitants (69.3%). In the case of the three websites most frequently indicated by respondents, i.e. Facebook, Instagram and Nasza-Klasa, the main motive for having an account is “keeping in touch with friends, groups of friends”.
Chart 2. A state of knowledge among Małopolska’s inhabitants about the possibilities of using digital resources of culture and their age
Social economy – what is that?
Social economy through the eyes of Małopolska residents is a chapter devoted to knowledge about this sector of the economy where all projects are oriented on social utility. From a formal point of view, the social economy is usually associated with activities on the border of the private and public sectors. Inhabitants of the region are most often associated with local development and “entrepreneurship” (37.5% and 27.8%). Almost 60.0% of respondents have never met the offer of social enterprises. About 1/5 of responses concerned the answer “yes – in the media (Internet, TV, press, etc.)”. According to the data, the youngest respondents (i.e. 18-24 years) are the age group that most often meets the offer of social enterprises. Interestingly, the offer of social enterprises is the least frequently encountered by the inhabitants of the city of Krakow – 67.6%.
The survey of the inhabitants of Małopolska has been conducted since 2012, and one of its goals is to present the diversity of opinions of the inhabitants of Małopolska in relation to their place of residence in individual subregions of the region. Such analysis is a hint to identify the key challenges facing development policy in territorial cross-section. The study involved residents of all six Małopolska’s subregions, and a total of 3002 computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted. At least 500 respondents participated in the study in each of the territorial areas.
Source of charts and maps in the article: own study based on research results.
The report answers the question how much most of the air pollution generated by humans, including heavy industry, low emissions, automotive, affect business operations?
Air pollution and selected industries
The feedback is taken from representatives of the travel, outsourcing and industrial companies and the main acpect concerns the phenomenon of sick absence related to exposure to polluted air in the Małopolska Region. The study was conducted in three groups of entities in which the level of air pollution plays different but important role. For the tourist industry, the occurrence of natural values and the condition of the natural environment is crucial. Air pollution in naturally attractive areas can, for example, discourage tourists from visiting such places, which of course will lead directly to the outflow of capital from the tourism business. In the business services industry (outsourcing), air pollution is treated as an indicator of the quality of life and attractiveness of a place from the point of view of locating investments in the area of services and advanced technologies. On the other hand, in the industrial sector, economic activity is associated with the generation of pollution and incurring the costs of their emission and reduction.
Causes of air pollution
Although we are increasingly aware of the importance of ecological behavior in our everyday lives, there aren’t still enough resolute, systemic and common solutions that would eliminate the problem of polluted air. We are already used to living in a contaminated and depleted environment, but it is not a natural state in which man and nature can exist. As long as its resources and balance are not disturbed, nature is able to absorb pollution to some extent and regenerate itself. But humanity is on the border of this balance, and its exceeding may eventually prove irreversible.
According to the definition, the cause of air pollution, in addition to natural factors, such as volcanic eruptions or forest fires, is the introduction of solid, liquid or gaseous substances into the air in such quantities that may threaten human health, negatively affect climate, living nature, soil or water, and cause other damage to the environment. This has been happening since the outbreak of the industrial revolution and the emission of pollutants is increasing every year, although in recent years its decline has been noticeable, especially SO2 (by 59%). Despite this, a huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) [336 557] is still released into the atmosphere – in this case even an increase of 6% was recorded, carbon monoxide (CO) [2,534], non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) , oxides nitrogen (NOX)  and ammonia (NH3)  [in thousand tonnes data for 2017]. In turn, dust emission of 341 thous. tone.
Map 1. Average annual PM2.5 dust concentration (µg / m³) from modeling results together with results from measuring stations in 2018.
Source: Instytut Ochrony Środowiska – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy i Główny Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska, own calculations
Absence from work causes trouble
Małopolska Region inhabitants’ lose from 2.05 million to 2.23 million working days a year due to air pollution. In terms of the number of days of sick leave due to poor air quality, the highest number for the analyzed years was obtained by Kraków. This is not only due to the state of the environment, but mainly due to the largest population of the city in the province. Krakow has the largest number of lost work days: in the after-heating season of 150,000 and 430 thousand during the heating season. The threefold difference between the seasons is mainly due to the significant difference in air quality between these periods. The worst month in years 2015–2018 was January, which means that, on average, this is the worst period in terms of smog and it has the most lost work days attributable to air pollution.
The average annual number of sick days absence for Małopolska is 2.12 million. The average annual cost of lost working days associated with the gross salary is 400 million PLN. Among diseases related to air pollution in Małopolska, the most represented groups of diseases (% of absenteeism days per group of diseases) are respiratory diseases (14%), nervous system diseases (6.6%), mental disorders and behavioral disorders (6, 2%), cardiovascular disease (4.6%), cancer (3.4%).
Map 2. Number of sick days absence attributed to air pollution (%) in 2018.
Source: Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych, own calculations
Małopolska’s investment attractiveness and the environment
Małopolska is the region where environmental pollution and its protection have a dual impact on economic development. On the one hand, there are areas with a very high investment attractiveness for industry (Kraków and Oświęcim subregions), and on the other, attractive areas for economic activity based on environmental and natural values (recreational tourism, spa tourism, health care, services establishing the work of specialists for whom good life conditions are crucial for employment’s decision).
The report clearly shows how the diversity of Małopolska is shaped in terms of investment attractiveness at the level of subregions. For example, the Kraków subregion together with City of Kraków is characterized by the highest level of investment attractiveness in industry, services and technologically advanced activities. Similarly, the highest level of investment attractiveness in industrial activity has the Oświęcim subregion. There was still a high level of investment attractiveness in the service area in the Tarnów subregion.
What is the opinion of Małopolska Region’s residents about actions taken by the regional government of the Małopolska region. Do they recognize any of landscape parks located in the region?
These are some of the questions that were asked to the inhabitants of Małopolska Region in the 8th edition of „The opinion poll of Małopolska Region’s residents 2019”. They voiced their opinion on the issues of quality of life, labor market, social capital, the area of culture and environmental awareness.
As many as 94% of respondents pointed to problems in the area of their residence. According to a large part of the voivodship’s population (36.7%), the biggest problems are caused by the condition of roads and transport infrastructure, 15.1% of respondents pointed to the poor quality of technical and urban / municipal infrastructure, and 13.3% see the poor condition of the natural environment. The first two issues are simultaneously indicated by the respondents as matters which regional authorities should get involved in to a much greater extent than before. Expectations of greater involvement are also expressed in the matter of health protection, social care and spending more public money for this purpose.
An emphasis in the study was put on the culture. Respondents were asked, if and how they participate in culture. Almost 3/4 of them (79%) declare that they participate in culture, 34% do it several times a month (the highest percentage of responses). Most often, the residents of Małopolska use the offer of cinemas, theaters, concert halls, art galleries (70.6%) and entertainment events (e.g. concerts, cabarets). Almost the same percentage of Małopolska residents uses both the cultural offer via the Internet and the library, book and press rentals (respectively 43.6% and 43%). When choosing a cultural offer, the inhabitants of the Małopolska Region are mostly guided by their personal interests – over 70.0% of responses, but give up due to lack of time (65% of responses).
What is a knowledge of landscape parks located in Małopolska Region among residents? The main reason why residents of the region visit the landscape parks is to spend free time with family and friends (almost 74% of declarations). Farther down there was admiring views and landscapes, and breathing the fresh, clean air. It turns out that despite positive associations with the term “landscape park”, almost ¼ of respondents confuse landscape parks with national parks, or identify them with other green areas, such as city parks.
Every third inhabitant of the region declares that visits the Małopolska landscape parks “at least once a year”. 16.6% of the respondents indicated that visit landscape parks several times a month. Interestingly, landscape parks are most often visited by residents of Kraków (21% of the declarations “several times a month”). A large proportion of people, however, could not indicate the full, correct name of even one landscape park in Małopolska Region. The Bielańsko-Tyniecki Landscape Park seems to be the best known, because the percentage of correct indications among the respondents in this case was the largest (27.8).
As a part of the opinion poll of Małopolska Region’s residents, computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted. In accordance with the delimitation established by the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the research was conducted in six subregions: the city of Kraków, Krakowski Obszar Metropolitalny – counties (powiaty): bocheński, krakowski, miechowski, myślenicki, proszowicki and wielicki), Nowosądecki – counties (powiaty): gorlicki, limanowski, the city of Nowy Sącz, nowosądecki), Nowotarski – counties (powiaty): nowotarski, suski, tatrzański, Oświęcimski – counties (powiaty): chrzanowski, olkuski, oświęcimski, wadowicki, Tarnowski – counties (powiaty): brzeski, dąbrowski, the city of Tarnów, tarnowski). In each of them, the size of the research sample was at least 500 respondents.
The report is the result of the study “Functional and spatial relations between urban centers and their surroundings”, which main purpose was to analyze the functional and spatial relations and connections in the network of cities and to determine their impact ranges in 6 regions of Poland.
The report has been published by the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków in cooperation with the Regional Development Observatory of Małopolska Region. The project was started in July 2018. The survey included cooperation of six polish regions (voivodships): pomorskie, małopolskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, zachodniopomorskie, warmińsko-mazurskie, łódzkie. The research methodology was common to all regions and gives an opportunity to compare results for all of them.
A number of research issues and questions were used, for example:
- What is the grade of matching public transport links to functional links (labor market, education)?
- What is the strength and directions of city connections in the public transport system?
- Are there any areas where a public transport service doesn’t work sufficiently?
- What kind of actions should be taken to improve the efficiency of public transport service?
Studies that have been carried out show that one of the most important elements strengthening the potential of cities is road accessibility. An access to roads of various categories determines the transport accessibility of cities, which is an important factor conditioning a level of economic and social development. Road transport in Małopolska Region is the dominant type of transport, both in the scope of goods and passenger transport. Unfortunately, the Małopolska Region doesn’t have well-developed road infrastructure, and thus transport in all parts of region.
The Kraków Metropolitan Area (KOM) and the municipalities located along the A4 motorway route have the best accessibility, both from the economic and quality of life perspective. However, this accessibility deteriorates the more north and south of the region’s main transport axis of this system. Counties of Tatry Mountains area, Nowy Targ, Gorlice and Nowy Sącz have the poorest accessibility.
Kraków, as a capital of Małopolska Region, is available from almost the entire area of the region in less than 2 hours. The municipalities of Muszyna, Uście Gorlickie and Piwniczna-Zdrój are located in the longest distance (in terms of travel time) from Kraków.
The south-eastern part of the Małopolska Region remains one of the weakest region due to a road and transport connection with others. It is the most important barrier in attracting external investors and may provoke a migration outflow from such areas to those with better accessibility and development.
An access to other urban centers with an administrative service is often more important for residents than accessibility to the capital of the region. Most people live within the range of Wieliczka town and Chrzanów town, which are influenced by the vicinity of Kraków and good communication with the cities of the Śląsk Region. Wieliczka town and Chrzanów town are available in less than 120 minutes for all inhabitans of their counties. Similar positive situation concerns Brzesko and Bochnia with the vicinity of the A4 motorway.
According to research, 26,867 connections between 62 cities in Małopolska Region have been recorded in 2019, which accounted for over 15% of public transport connections in the countryside commonly. On Sundays, connections (14,687) between cities accounted for over 20%. Kraków is best connected with other cities compared to other six examined regions. Strong connections with Kraków are observed both along the railway lines (Oświęcim – Trzebinia – Kraków – Tarnów – Rzeszów) and roads served only by buses (e.g. to Olkusz, Skała, Proszowice or Myślenice). Although accessibility from rural areas to cities in the Małopolska Region can be assessed as good, 16% of the localities did not have a public transport station at all.
It is worth emphasizing that almost 90% of inhabitants live in towns with access to public transport to the nearest city: excellent (27%), very good (15%) or good (16%). Locations with weak and very weak accessibility were concentrated in several zones: Gorlice County, Tarnów County, Limanowa County, areas near Miechów, counties: Kraków, Proszowice, Dąbrowa Tarnowska, Tarnów and Brzesko.
Locations with weak and very weak accessibility were concentrated in several zones:
- Beskid Niski (Gorlice county),
- Pogórze (Tarnów country, Limanowa country),
- Wyżyna Miechowska,
- Dąbrowa Tarnowska county, Tarnów county, Brzesko county.
57 cities, where 24.000 people live, had no connections to the town between the hours of 6 and 8 a.m. Such cities occur only in the northern and eastern parts of the region. However, even in well-developed KOM area, rural towns with only two daily routes to the county town were recorded. Importantly, over 50% of towns had a direct connection to Kraków, including almost all towns in the region. In total, 69% of the region’s residents living outside Krakow have a direct connection to it in the public transport system.
Public transport is also a very important component of the transport system in the context of commuting to secondary schools. In the Małopolska Region, most students attend to schools in Kraków, where a large number of highly specialized institutions is located. Nowy Sącz and Tarnów are also large centers of secondary schools education, followed by Nowy Targ, Limanowa and Oświęcim.
Functional links between cities and towns
The range and scale of impact of individual urban centers in the Małopolska region are very diverse. The influence of three main urban centers is clearly visible: Kraków, Tarnów and Nowy Sącz, with the dominance of Kraków. The western part of Małopolska Region is strongly linked with Śląsk Region, which is reflected in the intensity and directions of flows from centers located there.
The most powerful city center is Kraków – over 84,000 people arrive to work in, and less than 20,000 leave it every day. Together with Tarnów and Nowy Sącz, they gather over 37% of those who are work migrants (data from 2016). An area of strong economic suburbanization has developed around the capital of the region, which also gathers towns with considerable commuting.
The Carpathian area (with some exceptions of Nowy Sącz, Gorlice, Nowy Targ or Zakopane) and the borderland with the Świętokrzyskie Region – isolated centers (Wolbrom, Sucha Beskidzka or Dąbrowa Tarnowska) with their small but attractive towns, is characterized by low intensity of commuting. Among the cities with a negative balance of commutes we can also distinguish former coalmine cities located in the western part of the Małopolska Region.
What are attitudes characteristic for the users of landscape parks? Are these areas attractive for tourism? Where are users looking for knowledge about landscape parks and what is the cooperation between users and landscape parks like?
Here we have some questions that can be answered in the latest report “Research into environmental awareness and attitudes of people, entities and institutions related to the Małopolska Region’s landscape parks”. The results of the study are the basis for the implementation by the regional authorities of specific activities and projects in the field of nature and landscape protection policy, including increasing the attractiveness of landscape parks and taking into account the opinions of many user communities.
The report was based on a survey conducted using a number of data: existing, questionnaire interviews among residents, tourists, entrepreneurs and local government representatives, an online survey, as well as group and individual interviews and workshops for young people.
The report consists of three parts:
- presenting the results of the study,
- summary with conclusions and recommendations.
The first part, containing the theoretical introduction, presents the methodology and course of the study as well as the main information on the protection of nature and its individual forms in Poland and Małopolska Region. Particular attention was devoted to 11 landscape parks and focused on the role and history of the Landscape Park Complex of the Małopolska Region – the budget institution responsible for coordinating the conservation activities of landscape parks in the Małopolska Region.
The conducted research shows that landscape parks and national parks are the most recognizable forms of nature protection among residents and tourists. More than a half of the inhabitants and tourists believe that nature and landscape protection is needed and should be maintained at least at the current level. The majority of residents and entrepreneurs think that landscape parks are important to the proces of tourism development. However, it is necessary to carry out activities increasing knowledge about the natural environment in landscape parks. Similarly, it is necessary to undertake promotional and information activities to increase the recognition of landscape parks brand and municipalities located in their area.
The results of the study were summarized during an expert discussion. It indicated the role and vision of the Landscape Park Complex of the Małopolska Region. There also have been identified some steps to be taken to preserve the natural and landscape values of parks, while creating products and a tourist offer.
The value of goods and services exported from Małopolska Region in 2018 have exceeded 10,0 mld euro (10.11 mld zł) barrier for the first time, which gives it 6th place within regions in the country.
Foreign trade and export
Małopolska Region has recorded an increase in the value of exported goods and services by 5.7 % in comparison to 2017. The value of goods and services sent from Poland amounted to 219.18 billion EUR and increased by over 16.5 billion on a national scale. Leaders – Mazowieckie and Śląskie Voivodships – generate close to ¼ of domestic exports, and the value of each exceeds 27 billion EUR. Wielkopolska is another region where exports exceed 20 billion EUR. The next in the ranking – Dolnośląskie Voivodship – recorded the largest increase compared to 2017 – 1.4 billion EUR. A slightly higher export value than in Małopolska was recorded by the Pomorskie – 11.66 billion EUR.
Both Poland and Małopolska Region are definitely based on exports to european countries, especially to European Union (around 90%). Germany is the most important export partner for Małopolska Region, which is also reflected at the national level. The value of domestic exports to Germany exceeded 60 billion EUR, and the participation in domestic exports increased from 27.3% in 2017 to already 28.0% in 2018. For Małopolska region, it was 24.3% (2.5 billion EUR) and the increase from 23.5%, to 24.3% compare to 2017.
The value of exports above 500 million EUR and a share of 5% were also recorded by other directions of Małopolska exports: the Czech Republic (787 million EUR), France (768 million EUR), Great Britain (551 million EUR) and Slovakia (523 million EUR). The largest increase (similar to the national scale) was recorded in a trade exchange with Romania (13.5%). A decrease in value of exports was recorded for several countries, including the largest in the shipment of goods to Lithuania (-13.9%), as well as in exports to Austria, Brazil, Belarus and Luxembourg (all above 10 million EUR).
In 2018, 3,921 export companies operated in Małopolska (4th place in the ranking). Since 2017, the number of transport companies has increased by 110. The largest number of exporting companies is in the Mazowieckie Voivodship, where the number is gradually approaching the border of 10,000. In the whole country, this number increased from 44,494 to 44,820.
Import in Małopolska region
In total, the value of imports to Poland in 2018 reached 220.98 billion EUR and it was the first period when the value of imports exceeded 200 billion EUR. All Polish voivodships in 2018 recorded an increase in the value of imports. During this period, Małopolska imported goods with a total value of 10.82 billion EUR from the outside and for the first time it crossed the barrier of 10 billion EUR. In the ranking of regions, Małopolska Region took 6th place again.
The Mazowieckie Voivodship remains the unchallenged leader in this ranking. The value of imports of this region amounted to 60.18 billion EUR, which exceeds the total value of three other regions in this ranking – Wielkopolska (22.23 billion EUR), Śląsk (20.37 billion EUR) and Dolny Śląsk (16.01 billion EUR). Each of the regions also recorded an increase in value per capita and exceeds 1000 EUR.
Małopolska Region recorded an increase from 2.9 thousand EUR up to 3,200. Importers in Poland constituted a group of 54 424 entities, however Małopolska – 4690 entities, which makes the region one of the leaders (4th place). The value of imports per one enterprise in Małopolska Region in 2018 amounted to 2.3 million EUR.
The leading countries that import goods to Poland include:
- Germany (the largest increase in the value of imports every year, on the Polish scale in 2018, over EUR 5 billion),
- Russia (an increase of over 3.7 billion since 2017)
- China (an increase of over 1.7 billion since 2017)
The Netherlands, Italy and the Czech Republic are next. The Asian countries are also dominated by the Republic of Korea and Vietnam, the value of imports from each of these countries increased by more than 500 million EUR year on year. Interestingly, the largest percentage increase was recorded in the import of goods from Belarus.
Germany is the largest importer to Małopolska Region, and the value of imported goods increased by over 200 million EUR and amounted to 3 billion EUR (nearly 28% of the total value of imports). The next countries generating an import value above 700 million EUR are: China, Italy and the Netherlands. Slovakia is a prominent importer, certainly due to the immediate vicinity of Małopolska region (629 million EUR).
For the first time, since 2014, both Poland and Małopolska region recorded a negative trade balance. The value of goods imported to Poland is higher by 1.8 billion EUR, and to Małopolska by 0.72 billion EUR, which means to double the negative balance from 2017.
Commodity products of Małopolska
The most important goods exported from Małopolska Region are road tractors for pulling semi-trailers, and their value exceeded 437 million EUR. Above 200 million EUR also reached other automotive and motor-related categories: Electrical, lighting or visual signaling equipment of a kind used in motor vehicles, Radiators for motor vehicles, Vehicles other than for the transport of radioactive substances, and slightly below 200 million EUR – traffic jams, lids, caps.
The two most important categories of imported goods also belong to the automotive industry. The highest import value was achieved in the category: Engines (according to item 840820, without item 84082010; for vehicles of Chapter 87, except those for wheeled agricultural and forestry tractors; with power> 200 kW) and Bodies (including cabs), motor vehicles. In addition to the abovementioned, the category of liquefied hydrocarbons without propane, butane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, butadiene exceeded the value of EUR 200 million (increase from 180.2 million in 2017).