The report is based on a research questionnaire, including 31 units, showing the process of digitisation in Małopolska’s museums.
Among them we had: 26 entities, are organized by local governments, 3 private entities and 2 managed by non-governmental organizations. In addition, among these institutions there were 3 district museums – from Kraków, Tarnów and Nowy Sącz. The study was conducted to identify the current state of digitization of cultural resources in Małopolska’s museums. A goal was also to gather information about the manner and intensity of using digital culture resources by the inhabitants of Małopolska region.
Cultural heritage for future generations
Digitization is the process of transforming information recorded in an analog form into a digital form. The process of digitizing cultural heritage contributes both to increasing the availability of cultural products, and allows individual institutions to inventory and archive resources, which in turn gives them a chance to preserve the heritage for future generations. Digitization of cultural heritage is a multidimensional venture and it is necessary to take strategic planning activities, ensure adequate technical infrastructure, qualified staff, and thus also allocate the necessary financial resources.
The most important undertaking in the field of digitization at the European level was creating the EU i2010 initiative for digital libraries, and then the launch of Europeana – a digital platform with digitized resources of European cultural heritage. Europeana currently provides access to over 54 million items (including image, text, sound, video and 3D materials) from the collections of over 3,700 libraries, archives, museums, galleries and audiovisual collections from all over Europe.
In Poland, the entity responsible for implementing EU recommendations in the field of digitization is the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, which established an auxiliary Digitization Team.
The first high-budget project – aimed at creating a stable financing system for digitization projects – was the “Kultura +” Multiannual Government Program for 2011–2015. The main goal and effect of the program was financing the activities of the designated 5 Competence Centers, with the main task to coordinate activities related to digitization in a cultural sector.
How and why do institutions digitize collections?
In 2007-2020, Małopolska cultural institutions carried out about 30 projects, co-financed from national and regional operational programs aimed at digital consolidation and sharing of cultural heritage resources. Museums implement the process of digitizing collections in various forms. The dominant model is relying on own forces, and only a part of the institutions take into cooperation with external entities.
Most of the surveyed units that digitize their collections did not create their own program for digitizing collections. The overwhelming group uses in this respect standards developed by external institutions – most often the Ministry or National Institute of Museology and Protection of Museum’s Collections, which indicates the important role of these units in the preparation of good practices for the discussed issue. However, this approach leads to a lack of coordinated actions in the field of digitization of cultural goods. It generates difficulties for digital libraries in providing digitized exhibits operating in a specific files formats.
As the results of the study indicate, the main goal of digitization is to preserve the mapping of exhibits for future generations and to use digital copies for internal use of the institution. An important goal is also been to increase access to collections by publishing digital reproductions on websites.
Chart 1. The declared goal of digitizing the resources of cultural heritage by Małopolska cultural institutions
Source: own study
Who and why uses digitized collections?
Most users declaring to use the so-called contemporary works of culture in the form of e-books, films and programs can be found among the youngest group of respondents – 72.8%. Interest in this form of resources decreases with age. The situation is similar in the case of library resources – the inhabitants of Małopolska in age of 18-24 uses them most often – 52.7%. The situation is the opposite for seniors who use museum resources mostly – 45.1% of declarations.
Chart 2. Use of selected forms of digital heritage resources by Małopolska versus age (%)
Source: Own study based on the results of the study
Residents of Małopolska Region indicated that the so-called contemporary works (e.g. e-books, films, television programs) available via the Internet are the most popular. Over 60% of respondents declared using these resources. The second position with a result of 38.6% came from library resources (e.g. books, antique prints, manuscripts, maps, notes). Importantly, the inhabitants of Małopolska Region relatively willingly use museum resources – 32.5% of declarations.
Most often, inhabitants of Małopolska Region use digital cultural resources for scientific and educational purposes (almost ⅓ indications). It is also a way of entertainment and form of spending free time for over a quarter of respondents, and 13.6% of respondents also indicated the aspect of personal development and the need to explore information (10.3%).
We present the two-part report “Income tax from employees in the Małopolska Region in 2019”.
The report is based on the data originating in 1 636.3 thousand PIT-11 documents made available by the chamber of the fiscal administration in Kraków. The analysis contains information about taxpayers who obtained income from service relationship, employment relationship, cooperative employment relationship in 2018. Part one covers general taxpayer issues, including information on the structure of the economy based on taxpayers’ collections, their numbers, headquarters, mobility issues, as well as analysis of activities. The second part of the report is the analysis of information on taxpayers – individuals residing in Małopolska Region, parted by „powiaty” (administration’s units in the structure of region).
Less tax information
The year 2019 brought a halt to the rapid increase in the number of PIT-11 information issued, and even a slight decrease compared to the previous year. They are responsible for their decline, among others progressive decline in the working age population in Małopolska for several years, a growing share of non-tax resident foreigners, trade restrictions, a reduction in the widespread employment of students over the weekend in previous years, stabilization of the economy, also resulting in reduced staff turnover, and thus fewer tax information issued.
Only in three „powiaty” i.e. in Limanowski, Miechów and Wieliczka, the number of PIT-11 tax information issued increased in 2019 compared to the previous year. The deepest decline was recorded in the city of Nowy Sącz as well as Oświęcim and Olkusz. In communal sections, an increase in the number of issued PIT-11 documents was noted in 59 cases. The leading in this case is Igołomia-Wawrzeńczyce, in which a 15.8% increase was recorded. Chart 1. Number of information on earned income transferred to taxpayers residing in Małopolska Region in 2013-2019.
Chart 1. Number of information on earned income transferred to taxpayers residing in Małopolska in 2013-2019
Małopolska is a region based on services
This is clearly seen in the set of income tax payers. The most numerous group (36.7% of taxpayers from Małopolska) are taxpayers employed in the so-called “Other services”, including education, health care, social assistance, administration, education, etc. The second largest group (30.5% of Małopolska taxpayers) are services related to trade, transport, warehouse management, gastronomy, accommodation, information and communication. Industry is the third, not only as manufacturing activity, but also as mining, energy production and distribution – 20.5% of taxpayers. Next are: construction (8.2% of tax information issued), financial and insurance activities together with real estate market services – 3.6%, agriculture and related services – 0.6%.
Locally, the economic structure corresponds to the workplaces located in this area. Thus, for example, in the Brzeg, Dąbrowa, Miechów and Proszowice „powiaty”, enterprises included in the section ‘Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing’ dominate (the percentage of PIT-11 issued from companies was almost the same and amounted to 0.9%). Industry is the vast domain of the Oświęcim – 37.2% of tax information for taxpayers issued by industrial enterprises (including mines, power plants, waterworks, etc.). The next places are „powiaty” of Western Małopolska: Wadowicki – 33.9% and Olkusz – 33.3%.
The main specialization of Brzesko (16.8%), Limanowa (16.3%) and Nowy Sącz (14.7%) is architecture. In this case the largest quantitative decline in PIT-11 information was recorded. The “trade, repair, transport, storage, accommodation, gastronomy, information and communication” group is characteristic for the Tatrzański „powiat” – 42.7% and Miechowski „powiat” – 35.3%. Finance and insurance along with real estate services is the domain of Kraków – 5.3%, and “other services” are concentrated in cities with „powiat” rights, with Kraków’s leading role – 44.0%.
Chart 2. Number of information on earned income transferred to taxpayers residing in Małopolska by groups of „PKD” sections
Work where you live, but be mobile
The labor market in Małopolska is shaped by both local companies having their headquarters here as well as their representative offices, branches, factories and shops, but also by employing commuting at their premises. This usually applies to border areas in neighboring regions, guaranteeing an acceptable travel time. In 2018, about 2/3 of taxpayers residing in Małopolska provided work in the place of residence. This percentage is quite stable and slightly varies every year. In powiaty, the value is much more diverse, ranging from 42.6% in the Wadowice poviat, to 91.3% in the case of Kraków.
The gradually increasing share of companies located in Małopolska in the issued PIT-11 tax information for residents of the region is noticeable. In 2015-2019, this share increased by over 2 percentage points, from 78.1% to 80.2%. In different regions, it looks different, for example, in Oświęcim powiat payers from Małopolska issued 55.05% of all PIT-11 tax information, in Chrzanów powiat with a value of 66.1%, while in Myślenice powiat the value was 89.1%, and in Bochnia – 88.5%.
Lower values of the indicator in powiaty of the western part of the Małopolska are dictated by the strong economic impact of Śląsk Region (Silesia), as well as the location in Małopolska of branches or plants of companies from the Śląsk (e.g. mines) generating a large labor market. On the other hand, powiaty on the eastern side of the region have the exact opposite problem – the lack of adequate supply of jobs forces them to migrate – either to the capital of powiat or even further.
The percentage share in the labor market of payers from other regions recorded a more than 1% share:
- Mazowsze – 8.5%
- Śląsk – 5.1%
- Wielkopolska – 1.5%
- Dolny Śląsk – 1.1%
- Podkarpacie – 1.1%
With the exception of Wielkopolska, the share of payers from these regions in the number of tax information issued to taxpayers from Małopolska in the period 2015-2019 decreased.
Map 1. Percentage of PIT-11 tax information issued by payers based in Małopolska Region
A source of charts and a map: own study.
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Health protection, ecological awareness, social economy, culture digitalization, social media – these issues were found in the 9th edition of the research opinions of the residents of Malopolska Region 2019.
The residents of Małopolska Region voiced their views on factors affecting health, performing check-up and preventive examinations, assessing a degree of air pollution in the place of residence, sharing knowledge about ecology and taking action to protect the environment. The study also included the subject of social economy and knowledge of the offer of social enterprises, needs and preferences regarding the use of digitized resources of cultural heritage were examined, and how małopolska residents use social media.
One of the most important issues raised in the study was health protection and preventive services. Health topics, especially prevention, have occupied a lot of space for weeks in social life, as well as in the media, especially in the face of the current covid-19 epidemic. Although the study was carried out a few months before the pandemic, it contains many interesting opinions about the general health condition of Małopolska residents
Health – O.K! Research – not necessarily
According to 64% of Małopolska respondents, the factor that determines the health condition of the population to the greatest extent is lifestyle (e.g. physical activity, diet, rest). According to the respondents, access to healthcare is the least important (1/4 of the declaration). So, do residents of Małopolska attach importance to prevention and check-ups before they get sick? It turns out that the inhabitants of the region usually carry out check-ups only if disturbing symptoms occure (55.7% of opinions) and at the request of a doctor (40.1%). The most systematic in carrying out control tests are the inhabitants of Krakow, because over 40.0% responded “I do it systematically”. The fewest declarations were made by respondents from the Sądecki subregion – 28.9%, as well as young people aged 18-24.
Almost 85.0% of respondents declare that in the last two years they performed basic tests (including blood or urine tests, ultrasound examination). Over 3/4 of them underwent a blood pressure test, and what is significant, hypertension is indicated as one of the most common complaints among the inhabitants of Małopolska (1/4 of respondents). As for women-dedicated tests, over 68.0% of female in Małopolska admit that they have had cytological tests in the last two years, 65.4% have had a gynecological ultrasound scan, but only 44.1% have indicated that they were doing a breast ultrasound or mammography at that time . The situation is slightly worse among male because in the last two years prostate tests were performed by less than 1/4 of male respondents.
Picture 1. Factors which determining the most a health condition of the population in Małopolska Region
There’s a deficit of clean air
According to independent data, polluted air increases the risk of many diseases, including respiratory and circulatory systems. Małopolska’s residents also pay attention to the fact that the external environment (e.g. air quality, working conditions) can significantly affect health. Meanwhile, despite many efforts directed at environmentally friendly solutions, Małopolska Region is still struggling with the problem of polluted air. As many as 60.0% of the Małopolska respondents assess the degree of air pollution in their place of residence as “very high” or “high”. The inhabitants of Krakow pay special attention to this problem, as up to half of them think that their place of residence has “very high” air pollution. The inhabitants of the Nowy Targ subregion have a different opinion, only 4.4% think that the air condition is bad.
Chart 1. Assessment of the level of air pollution at the place of residence in Małopolska Region
Active on the Internet
Małopolska Region is one of the richest and most culturally diverse regions in Europe, and Krakow itself boasts several million exhibits in its museums. The preservation of all kinds of cultural goods in digital format has become possible thanks to the digitization process. The inhabitants of Małopolska know that there is an electronic, digitized form of culture, and the inhabitants of Krakow demonstrate the greatest knowledge in this area – 77.4%. The most popular are the so-called contemporary works (e.g. e-books, films, TV programs) available via the Internet – 60.6%. The second position is taken by library resources (e.g. books, old prints, manuscripts, maps, notes) – 38.6%.
As regards the use of social media, as many as 86.4% of respondents declared that they had an account on at least one website. Facebook is the most popular social website among Małopolska inhabitants (69.3%). In the case of the three websites most frequently indicated by respondents, i.e. Facebook, Instagram and Nasza-Klasa, the main motive for having an account is “keeping in touch with friends, groups of friends”.
Chart 2. A state of knowledge among Małopolska’s inhabitants about the possibilities of using digital resources of culture and their age
Social economy – what is that?
Social economy through the eyes of Małopolska residents is a chapter devoted to knowledge about this sector of the economy where all projects are oriented on social utility. From a formal point of view, the social economy is usually associated with activities on the border of the private and public sectors. Inhabitants of the region are most often associated with local development and “entrepreneurship” (37.5% and 27.8%). Almost 60.0% of respondents have never met the offer of social enterprises. About 1/5 of responses concerned the answer “yes – in the media (Internet, TV, press, etc.)”. According to the data, the youngest respondents (i.e. 18-24 years) are the age group that most often meets the offer of social enterprises. Interestingly, the offer of social enterprises is the least frequently encountered by the inhabitants of the city of Krakow – 67.6%.
The survey of the inhabitants of Małopolska has been conducted since 2012, and one of its goals is to present the diversity of opinions of the inhabitants of Małopolska in relation to their place of residence in individual subregions of the region. Such analysis is a hint to identify the key challenges facing development policy in territorial cross-section. The study involved residents of all six Małopolska’s subregions, and a total of 3002 computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted. At least 500 respondents participated in the study in each of the territorial areas.
Source of charts and maps in the article: own study based on research results.
The report answers the question how much most of the air pollution generated by humans, including heavy industry, low emissions, automotive, affect business operations?
Air pollution and selected industries
The feedback is taken from representatives of the travel, outsourcing and industrial companies and the main acpect concerns the phenomenon of sick absence related to exposure to polluted air in the Małopolska Region. The study was conducted in three groups of entities in which the level of air pollution plays different but important role. For the tourist industry, the occurrence of natural values and the condition of the natural environment is crucial. Air pollution in naturally attractive areas can, for example, discourage tourists from visiting such places, which of course will lead directly to the outflow of capital from the tourism business. In the business services industry (outsourcing), air pollution is treated as an indicator of the quality of life and attractiveness of a place from the point of view of locating investments in the area of services and advanced technologies. On the other hand, in the industrial sector, economic activity is associated with the generation of pollution and incurring the costs of their emission and reduction.
Causes of air pollution
Although we are increasingly aware of the importance of ecological behavior in our everyday lives, there aren’t still enough resolute, systemic and common solutions that would eliminate the problem of polluted air. We are already used to living in a contaminated and depleted environment, but it is not a natural state in which man and nature can exist. As long as its resources and balance are not disturbed, nature is able to absorb pollution to some extent and regenerate itself. But humanity is on the border of this balance, and its exceeding may eventually prove irreversible.
According to the definition, the cause of air pollution, in addition to natural factors, such as volcanic eruptions or forest fires, is the introduction of solid, liquid or gaseous substances into the air in such quantities that may threaten human health, negatively affect climate, living nature, soil or water, and cause other damage to the environment. This has been happening since the outbreak of the industrial revolution and the emission of pollutants is increasing every year, although in recent years its decline has been noticeable, especially SO2 (by 59%). Despite this, a huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) [336 557] is still released into the atmosphere – in this case even an increase of 6% was recorded, carbon monoxide (CO) [2,534], non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) , oxides nitrogen (NOX)  and ammonia (NH3)  [in thousand tonnes data for 2017]. In turn, dust emission of 341 thous. tone.
Map 1. Average annual PM2.5 dust concentration (µg / m³) from modeling results together with results from measuring stations in 2018.
Source: Instytut Ochrony Środowiska – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy i Główny Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska, own calculations
Absence from work causes trouble
Małopolska Region inhabitants’ lose from 2.05 million to 2.23 million working days a year due to air pollution. In terms of the number of days of sick leave due to poor air quality, the highest number for the analyzed years was obtained by Kraków. This is not only due to the state of the environment, but mainly due to the largest population of the city in the province. Krakow has the largest number of lost work days: in the after-heating season of 150,000 and 430 thousand during the heating season. The threefold difference between the seasons is mainly due to the significant difference in air quality between these periods. The worst month in years 2015–2018 was January, which means that, on average, this is the worst period in terms of smog and it has the most lost work days attributable to air pollution.
The average annual number of sick days absence for Małopolska is 2.12 million. The average annual cost of lost working days associated with the gross salary is 400 million PLN. Among diseases related to air pollution in Małopolska, the most represented groups of diseases (% of absenteeism days per group of diseases) are respiratory diseases (14%), nervous system diseases (6.6%), mental disorders and behavioral disorders (6, 2%), cardiovascular disease (4.6%), cancer (3.4%).
Map 2. Number of sick days absence attributed to air pollution (%) in 2018.
Source: Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych, own calculations
Małopolska’s investment attractiveness and the environment
Małopolska is the region where environmental pollution and its protection have a dual impact on economic development. On the one hand, there are areas with a very high investment attractiveness for industry (Kraków and Oświęcim subregions), and on the other, attractive areas for economic activity based on environmental and natural values (recreational tourism, spa tourism, health care, services establishing the work of specialists for whom good life conditions are crucial for employment’s decision).
The report clearly shows how the diversity of Małopolska is shaped in terms of investment attractiveness at the level of subregions. For example, the Kraków subregion together with City of Kraków is characterized by the highest level of investment attractiveness in industry, services and technologically advanced activities. Similarly, the highest level of investment attractiveness in industrial activity has the Oświęcim subregion. There was still a high level of investment attractiveness in the service area in the Tarnów subregion.